br Our analyses included haplotype association
Our analyses included haplotype association of pairwise SNPs, rs3020314 and rs1514348 with breast cancer risk. The r2 between rs3020214 and rs1514348 in the present study was 0.008. The fre-quencies in the haplotype block were comparable between the case and control groups, and we found no evidence for the association of breast cancer risk and genetic variation in haplotypes of pairwise SNPs of ESR1 gene. The result of the haplotype analysis is in line with HapMap
A.T. Gebreslasie, et al.
data of YRI population (Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria) where r2is only 0.009. Thus, in both populations the r2 is very low, indicating a very weak link between these two SNPs.
In conclusion, a significant association of breast cancer was ob-served with the CT Cucurbitacin I of SNP-rs3020314 compared to the wild type CC genotype among Sudanese women; this is similar to that of Asian and Caucasian populations. The heterozygous genotype CT of SNPrs1514348 showed a protective or reduced breast cancer risk, which disagrees with the previous published data. These inconsistent findings might be attributed to geographic and ethnic characteristics of the population being studied, as there are considerable variations in the distribution of the genotypes in various populations.
Addressing the limitations of this study, we refer to its small sample size and lack of patients' follow-up data that could add information on relation of genotype to response to therapy, or disease outcome. However, the findings of this study are expected to serve as a basis for future studies.
Our data suggest that the ESR1 polymorphism rs3020314 might contribute to increased breast cancer risk, whereas rs1514348 could relate to decreased risk in Sudanese women. However, these findings need to be tested with further studies analyzing a larger number of Sudanese women in a population-based approach.
We thank all participants; our thanks extend to the staﬀ of National Cancer Institute (NCI-UG), University of Gezira, Sudan. This work was supported by a grant from the National Board for Higher Education of the State of Eritrea.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Pathology - Research and Practice
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Association of hCG and LHCGR expression patterns with clinicopathological T parameters in ovarian cancer
Yuanyuan Zhonga, Yingying Wangb, Jianfei Huangc, Xiangyu Xua, Weidong Pana, Sainan Gaoa, Yuquan Zhanga, , Min Sua, a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Aﬃliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, China
b Laboratory of Immunology, Nantong University, China; Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, China
c Department of Pathology; Aﬃliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, China